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NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence


The Tallinn-based NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence (NATO CCD COE) is a NATO-accredited knowledge hub, think-tank and training facility. The international military organisation focuses on interdisciplinary applied research and development, as well as consultations, trainings and exercises in the field of cyber security. The Centre’s mission is to enhance capability, cooperation and information-sharing between NATO, Allies and partners in cyber defence. 

The heart of the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence is a diverse group of international experts in cyber security. They include legal scholars, policy and strategy experts as well as technology researchers with military, government and industry backgrounds. 

Membership of the Centre is open to all Allies. Currently, the Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Spain, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States have signed on as Sponsoring Nations of the Centre. Austria and Finland have become Contributing Participants – the status available for non-NATO nations. Furthermore, Sweden and Belgium have announced their intent to join the Centre and the respective negotiations are ongoing.

The Centre is staffed and financed by its sponsoring nations and contributing participants. The Centre is not part of NATO command or force structure, nor is it funded from the NATO budget. Many of the Centre’s publications, as well as a number of interactive databases, are accessible through

The Tallinn Manual

The Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare is the most influential handbook for legal advisers dealing with cyber issues. Published by Cambridge University Press, the Manual is authored by 20 leading international legal experts who were brought together by the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence.

The focus of the original Tallinn Manual, published in 2013, is on cyber operations that qualify as armed attacks under international law. The international group of experts is currently finalizing the considerably expanded and updated Tallinn Manual 2.0 that will deal with the most common and frequent cyber incidents that states encounter in peacetime beyond the battlefield.

The original Manual can be accessed at and ordered at

Locked Shields

Locked Shields 2016 is the biggest and most advanced international live-fire cyber defence exercise in the world. The annual real-time network defence exercise, organised since 2010 by the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence, focuses on training the security experts who protect national IT systems on a daily basis.

Over 550 people and a total of 26 nations are involved in Locked Shields 2016. 20 Blue teams representing 19 nations and NATO Computer Incident Response Capability (NCIRC) are tasked to maintain the networks and services of a fictional country, Berylia under intense pressure. This includes handling and reporting incidents, solving forensic challenges as well as responding to legal, media and scenario injects. 


The 8th International Conference on Cyber Conflict (CyCon 2016) will take place 1-3 June 2016 in Tallinn, Estonia. Every year, over 500 decision-makers and experts from government, military and industry from all over the world approach the conference’s key theme from legal, technology and strategy perspectives, often in an interdisciplinary manner.

Focusing on the theme of Cyber Power, CyCon 2016 will ask how the traditional concept of power applies to cyberspace. The issues to be covered include international cooperation, technical challenges and requirements, conflict in cyberspace, legal framework, regulations and standards. 

For updates, materials and more information, please visit the conference web site

Headquarters of the Estonian Defence Forces, 717 1900, mil[at], Juhkentali 58, EE15007, Tallinn, Estonia.

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